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Greetings from a “Bernie Bro”

It has been frequently remarked, that it seems to have been reserved to the people of this country to decide, by their conduct and example, the important question, whether societies of men are really capable or not, of establishing good government from reflection and choice, or whether they are forever destined to depend, for their political constitutions, on accident and force.
—Alexander Hamilton
Hello, it’s me, your friendly neighborhood Bernie Bro. An amab queer non-binary/gender non-conforming person who grew up in the south and cut my teeth on the xenophobia and rah-rah patriotism of the post 9/11 world. I don’t own any flat brim caps. I’m not on Twitter. I don’t drive a Prius. I am however in my mid-30s and white, you’ve got me there.
I’m registered D because that’s what I have to be to participate in democracy on any effective scale here, but come Election Day my vote goes to the person who most fits my views. I voted third party in 2008, D in 2012, and “3rd party” in 2016. My vote is not a given. You have to earn it.
Yes, I wrote in Bernie Sanders in 2016 with a tear going down my cheek. I also voted in a precinct where my vote for Hillary would have just as much weight as mine or a vote for Mickey Mouse. Yes, I am part of the problem. But I am also part of the solution.
I went through my young libertarian phase in college as I found my political footing and opened my eyes to the world outside of the bubble I grew up in. But eventually those views of individual liberty and “I’ll get mine,” gave way to a collective solidarity and a desire to help those around me “on my way up.”
Then 2008 happened. I’m one of the lucky ones that didn’t even get to graduate into the recession, my money ran out before I could. With 118 credit hours.
I live pay check to paycheck and spent a good portion of last year literally eating scraps off of tables in restaurants to survive.
The most important thing for me as far as political policy is the expansion of rights and helping my fellow humans to live. Our system as it stands doesn’t allow some to survive, much less thrive.
Bernie’s movement is the only one I see that doesn’t leave anyone behind. You can squawk all you want to me about the rich people getting Medicare for All or rich kids getting free college, too. Good. I want them to. You know why?
—Michael Scott
To my eye, neoliberals are basically neocons with rainbow flags and weed. I’m being facetious, obviously, but like what honestly does the modern “liberal” movement have to offer anyone under 40?
Obama drank a glass of Flint’s water. Hillary threw some hot sauce in her bag. Pelosi is a wannabe meme queen with her empty stunts. But at the end of the day it’s:
“We promise to ask the republicans really nicely if they’ll put away their guns and stop being transphobic. And we promise that we’re gonna make you feel good about how we’re totally gonna talk about maybe trying to ask those guys if they don’t mind maybe thinking about helping us with poor people and to not start any more wars pretty please. Along the way we’re going to fund the wars they already started and help them get their agenda done because that way they will totally work with us next time. Promise.”
“Independent” has been wrapped up with “centrist,” as if the two parties represent the furthest poles and anyone that doesn’t submit to their ideals outright must fall somewhere betwixt. As if to ignore that those very same parties were once borne from the collapse of the parties before them.
Furthermore, I feel like the word “moderate” has essentially become synonymous with “complacent.” As if to win we must put forth the most shuggable option that can appeal to the apathetic masses... the apathetic masses that are somehow going to take time off of work to go stand in line for hours to vote... that kind of person has to exist right?
What the establishment is offering is the middle. Shooting for average. Hedging bets. And we wonder why the “make America great” line had such an effect on people... the mind boggles.
While I might be, on paper, a ThIrTy-SoMeThInG wHiTe GuY, I am not alone. I am not just “rebelling against power and wealth.” I’m aware that the “1%” by its very nature is exclusive to that 1% and that a very solid majority... like 99%... will never make that cut. Graduation college into the Great Recession destroyer any chances of upward mobility for a huge portion. And we’re not just stagnant, we’re falling being and only getting worse.
It’s not enough to wish you were wealthy anymore. It’s not enough to make sure the rules are where you like them for when you eventually make it rich. I’ve realized that you can’t get there without stepping on the necks of those “below” me. Miss me with that.
There are a ton of people out there that work service industry jobs or dead end desk jobs or work in the gig economy... a lot of things getting eaten away by automation or corporate “efficiency”... and we’re looking around and realizing that it’s not enough to try to make it to the top.
We need to band together and work for our common good to create a better environment for ourselves and our fellow humans.
We don’t move forward by standing still. We certainly don’t move forward by promising to step backwards. We don’t inspire people by giving them the same milquetoast platitudes of hope and change with no movement to back it up.
In summary, go Bernie go. Love, a Bernie Bro.
submitted by exfourtwentyex to Political_Revolution [link] [comments]

The Complete NERF Blaster MOSFET Wiring Tutorial for Beginners and Pros

It’s time for an easy MOSFET wiring guide. There haven’t been too many, so I’ll add mine to the list. I’ve mainly seen the use of high-amperage micro-switches in this community, but as tech in blasters (microcontrollers, brushless motors) continues to expand and the motor-arms-race delivering new, high-draw motors to the scene, it’s time for another MOSFET guide without confusing the beginners while at the same time, enlightening the experienced modders.
This guide will be super in-depth, and will hopefully cover a ton content so you could start it off as a beginner, and come back to it as a pro, and learn something every time. No prerequisites required - just a basic understanding of electricity! For the more advanced and technical parts, a high-school level understanding of physics and chemistry may be required. Read what you understand, and skip what you don't. There will be some parts which will be intimidating to beginners, but that’s the point! There’s always something new to learn in electronics, whether that be more electronics, physics, or microcontrollers.
Check this guide out on my site:

First off, what is a MOSFET?

A MOSFET is a type of transistor. A transistor is a switch relying on an electrical signal to allow current to flow, rather than a physical movement like a switch.
I know the first time someone told me that, I got super confused. Immediately below is a beginner friendly description of a transistor, and a the further down you go, the more technical it will get. If you understand above, that’s all you need to know about a MOSFETS’s functionality. Feel free to read more below, or skip to the next section: CTRL + F - “MOSFET PINOUT”.
Let’s take a look an an example of a switch. For this example, a light switch. In its resting state, electricity will not flow - the light bulb is not on. But when you flick the switch, the light turns on - electricity is flowing. Notice how it relies on manual mechanical energy, your finger pressing on it, for the current to flow. Whats often happening in these switches is the movement of a metal piece which touches different metal things for electricity to flow as desired.
Here’s a good example of what’s happening
Now that you know how a switch works completely, let’s look at a transistor now. Remember, a MOSFET is a type of transistor, so they work exactly the same. If you didn’t already know, transistors are one of the most amazing inventions ever, on-par with fire and the wheel (not joking!). Everything computedigital = transistors. They revolutionized computing technology, and all of our computers (laptops, phones, microcontrollers, watches, calculators) are based on transistor architecture. In your Intel Core i7 processor, there are over fourteen billion transistors! For comparison, the earth is only about 25,000 miles in circumference. In your phones, transistors can be as small as seven nanometers, and the smallest ones invented are around one nanometer. A nanometer is a billionth of a meter, so transistors have gotten down to the size of a few atoms across now.
Okay, enough lecture on how amazing transistors are (hint: they’re really amazing!). Let’s see how they work. Remember how a switch relies on a manual input to control the electrical behavior? Well, a transistor uses electrical input to control the electrical behavior.
Here’s a picture of a transistor
Imagine a switch which has two pins. The two pins will conduct electricity when the switch is pressed, and will not conduct electricity when the switch is not pressed. Observe the above picture of a transistor, and notice how it has three pins. Two of the pins will allow for electricity to conduct when the other pin is fed electricity. We’ll call this “other pin” the signal pin, since it acts as a signal which signals when the other two pin should conduct electricity.
So transistors are like switches, but they’re awesomer. They can be MUCH smaller and MUCH faster.
Tl;dr Transistors are like switches, but are awesomer since they rely on an electrical input, rather than manual input like a switch.
Now that you know how a transistor works, it would be extremely helpful to understand the pins as well


A MOSFET is a transistor, and a transistor has three pins. Therefore, a MOSFET has three pins.
Take a look at that picture. The pins are labeled:
“Two of the pins will allow for electricity to conduct when the other pin is fed electricity” is the same as “The Drain and Source will conduct electricity when the Get gets fed electricity.
You can think of the gate that acts like a gate. When the gate is open (it gets fed electricity), electricity can flow through the MOSFET.
You don’t really need to remember these fancy names, but they will be Extremely helpful for the rest of this write-up. Don't fuss too much over remembering them, the concept is much more important. The more you are exposed to the words in context, the better and faster you will understand them. Hopefully I use them enough in this write-up that you’ll know them front-and-back by the end of this.
And that’s all it is for understanding MOSFETs! I hope you completely understand how they work, and the pins. It gets a bit more technical from here on about MOSFETs, so feel free to read through it or skip to the next section: CTRL + F - “Why Should I Even Use a MOSFET?”.

More technical discussion starts here.

There are two different types of MOSFETs, an “N-Channel MOSFET” and a “P-Channel MOSFET”. You can think of it like this: an N-channel MOSFET connects negative of the battery to negative of the load, and a P-channel MOSFET connects the positive of the battery to the positive of the load. Since the N-channel MOSFET connects the negatives, we call it “Low-side switching”, and the P-channel MOSFET as “High-side switching”. If you’re more familiar with BJTs, a P-channel MOSFET would be equivalent to a PNP BJT, and an N-channel to an NPN.
Although both can be used, in this build, an N-channel MOSFET will be used. Here are some advantages of N-channel MOSFETs over P-channel ones:
MOSFET is an acronym:
Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor
MOS, or metal-oxide semiconductor, describes the chemical properties of the semiconductive materials which makes the MOSFET work. Recall from the media and chemistry class that a semiconductor includes elements such as Silicon and Germanium. Many transistors rely on Silicon chemistry, with special enhancement substances injected, or ‘doped’, for enhanced performance.
This metal-oxide layer insulates the input voltage from the output current as well, so the input voltage interacts with the output current through electromagnetic fields, as described below.
FET, or field-effect transistor, describes the type of transistor. A more ‘traditional’ transistor, such as a BJT, works using current, assuming the threshold voltage has been exceeded, to determine its conductive behavior, as the current flowing through the base directly interacts with the current flowing through the collector and emitter. While a BJT’s conducive behavior is more reliant on current, a FET’s conductive behavior is more reliant on voltage.
FETs work on electric fields, as described in the name. When an electric potential difference between the gate and source is observed, an electric field is created. Since we are using an enhancement mode FET, rather than a depletion mode FET, pulling the gate-source voltage (Vgs) to high will turn the FET on, so current can flow through the drain and source. The strength of the electric field formed is proportional to Vgs, and the stronger the electric field, the lower the internal resistance of the device. Therefore, a input higher voltage will result in better current flow of the device.
Remember, more internal resistance, or resistance between the drain and source (Rds) means the less energy goes to your load, so a decrease in efficiency. A higher resistance will also result in more heat generation, and more heat is often not a good thing. A higher junction temperature also results in a higher resistance, and this higher resistance results in more heat generation, and so on. It’s like an infinite loop. Extremely high junction temperatures (Tj) can also destroy the internal chemistry of the FET. The MOSFET linked below in the parts section can handle up to 175C, so you won’t need to worry about heat too much in your build. The chemical and electrical properties of a FET will vary a little bit based on Tj, so check your datasheets on that. If you’re reading this part, I assume you have the technical capability to be able to read data sheets. Luckily, most MOSFETs include a heat-sink integrated into the device, as well as decently high operating temperature thresholds.
Ideal Vgs for MOSFETs are between eight and twelve volts, depending on the specific model. Check the data sheets. Voltage from your LiPo battery, whether that be 2S or 3S, works perfectly fine. Depending on the particular MOSFET, Rds may be as low as a few mΩ, at an ideal state. The MOSFET linked in this write-up has an Rds of around 2mΩ.
To summarize MOSFETs:

Why Should I Even Use a MOSFET?

All this fancy talk about MOSFETs, and I didn’t even explain what’s so good about them.
When we modify blasters, we often do a few things:
  • Battery replacement with LiPos
  • Motor replacement
  • Rewire with 16 AWG or 18 AWG wiring
  • Switch replacement
One of the above modifications results in or is a result of the avalanching modification requirements. Motor replacement calls for a higher ability of discharge from a battery = battery replacement. Battery replacement = higher current = rewire + switch replacement.
Let’s take a look at the few options we have for controlling our high-amperage circuits:
  • High-amperage microswitches
  • Relays

High-amperage Microswitches

Top of the line motors, at the moment, may draw close to 50A at stall. The highest rated microswitches in in the community I’ve seen are 21A microswitches. 50A > 21A. But high end motors only draw 50A for a fraction of a second, so the switches should be safe, right? For now. I’ve never heard of anyone damaging a 21A switch from high-draw motors anyways.
But in the time of a motor-arms-race, more motors are being release, and these motors are getting more powerful. This means higher current draw. Soon, even our 21A switches won’t be able to keep up with all these motors. But MOSFETs will. Well, they already do. They are currently used today to control high-power appliances, including street lights and airplanes.
High-amperage switches don’t fit directly into blasters. You’ll need to dremel out a lot of the stock switch mounting area, orient the switch correctly, and then adhere it into place. You also have possibly 100A of current running through your grip, millimeters away from your hand. That doesn't sound safe.
Tl;dr Requires shell modifications, not future-proof


This is a relay
Although I haven’t personally seen the use of relays too much in builds, they are another basic option to control high-draw motors. They are also quite advantageous over high-amperage microswitches.
Relays are literally switches controlled by a magnet. But that magnet, known as an electromagnet, can be turned on and off. So there is a physical moving part which toggles position based on whether the electromagnet is on or not. A low power signal controlling the electromagnet will determine whether current can flow, similar to a transistoMOSFET.
Relays can be advantageous over high-amperage microswitches since shell modification may not be necessary. The stock NERF switch may be used as a ‘signal’ to control electricity flow through the relay.
Although relays are reign supreme over high-amperage switches in terms of shell modifications, they fall short in the same ways. Some of the highest-power relays, automotive relays (yep, the stuff used in cars), can get quite expensive and are rated for only 30A - 40A.

Here’s why MOSFETs are better

  • Zero shell modification. Can be wired to rest in any part of the shell.
  • Can handle higher current (the one I’ve linked can handle up to 343A under the right circumstances)
  • Cost. I see high-amperage switches costing around $5, and around the same for high-amperage relays. A MOSFET fulfilling all the needs of the highest-end blaster can cost around $3, and you could get away with some MOSFETs costing under $1, depending on your setup.
  • A lot faster. After all, transistors are used in your 3GHz computers. (will be further explained in technical section below)
  • You sound more pro: “Yeah, in my Rapidstrike, I’m running an IRLB3034PbF N-channel low-side switching HEXFET power MOSFET controlling the flywheels, and an IRFZ44N N-channel low-side switching HEXFET power MOSFET controlling the flywheels. Both are hooked up to a 10 kilo-ohm quarter-watt pulldown resistor to combat electrostatic interference, and a 1N5408 flyback rectifier diode to suppress transient voltage spikes resulting from the collapsing electromagnetic field of the motor’s coil” vs “I’m running a 21A microswitch. I like how it’s super clicky click click click”.
  • Afterburners. You don't want six motors worth of current running through your wimpy microswitch.
Cons of MOSFET: May be electrically complex for beginners. This write-up changes that, so there is no excuse not to use MOSFETs.
Tl;dr MOSFETs are better.
Now that you know why MOSFETs are objectively superior, feel free to go onto the technical part where. If not, skip ahead to the next section: CTRL + F - “How it all Works - Putting all the Concepts Together”

Technical Discussion Starts Here

I’ll be going over pulse-width-modulation (PWM) here, and specifically, its relevance to tech in blasters. When I say tech in blasters, I don’t mean 3D printed components or wiring looms, I mean programmed microcontrollers, such as in Eli Wu’s builds, Project FDL, Ammo Counters by, and my upcoming Smart Blaster kits.
So what is PWM? Other than sounding super fancy, it’s also super useful. First, I need to discuss the difference between digital and analog components.
What does it mean, digital? Well, I’m sure we’ve all heard of it, “The digital age” and stuff like that. Digital often induces imagery of computers, and binary, 1’s and 0’s. That’s exactly what digital describes, binary. Digital means involving only two values. For example, your light would be digital, since it only has two values, ON and OFF, or the status of your phone power being at 100% battery, TRUE, or FALSE. Your phone is either at 100% battery, or it’s not at 100% battery. Tying this to computers, remember how computers only “see” in binary, 1, and 0: 101010001001. Binary only has two values, 1, and 0, therefore, it is called a digital value.
What about analog? While digital pertains to states which only have two values, analog pertains to states which may have more than one value. For example, the temperature. There are many different values the weather can be, 78F, 92F, or even 23F. Those are only three, but there are an unlimited number of different temperatures (mathematically, not physically) possible when we include decimals. Another example would be the speed of your car. It could be going at 60mph, or 61mph, or 73mph, or 5mph.
Tl;dr Digital = only two values (light - ON or OFF), analog = more than two values (speed - 60mph, 25mph, 3mph, etc.)
Now, what about our motors in our blasters? What would best describe their output state - analog, or digital? Well, in our blasters, they really only have two states, ON, or OFF. But motors, like a car, can be analog. They can be off, on, in the middle, and anything in between.
So we know it is physically possible to control the speed of our blaster’s motors. This yields us a variable control of dart velocity, power consumption, and rate of fire (Hint Hint an upcoming Smart Blaster kit). If we want our darts traveling at 130fps instead of the maximum 150fps for confusion tactics against our enemies, we can crank down on speed of the motors a bit. If we want to shoot our Rapidstrike a bit slower in terms of darts/sec, to conserve ammo without burst-fire (Hint Hint another upcoming Smart Blaster kit) then we could slow down the pusher motor a bit. And we can control these speeds using a microcontroller.
A microcontroller is just like a computer, but quite a lot smaller than your laptops. They're also mounted on ICs. Some examples include an Atmega328 and a TI MSP430G2452IN20, but NOT a Raspberry Pi. A Raspberry Pi as a microprocessor. An Atmega328 and a TI MSP430G2452IN20are NOT microprocessors. An Arduino and a Teensy is NOT a microcontroller or a microprocessor, it simply houses a microcontroller. DON’T call an Arduino a microprocessor, because it’s not. Call it a microcontroller, since it’s basically a shell for one. I’m super anal about these terms but I don't know why lol.
But explained above is how computers are digital, and motor speed is analog. Analog != digital, so how do we do this? Well, there’s this fancy thing called PWM. It’s basically just returning an analog output, such as motor velocity, from a digital device, such as a computemicrocontroller. It works by toggling output power super super fast, sometimes many kHz, depending on the device outputting the power.
Let’s say we have a 10W power source. We’re only talking about power here, but remember Power = Voltage * Current, Watts= Volts * Amps. PWM controls power. And a circuit that looks like this. Notice how the power source goes through a PWM device, and the PWM device then outputs to a motor. The PWM device is a digital device.
PWM Circuit
If we leave the PWM device at high the entire time, then the output will be at 10W. If we leave the PWM device at low the entire time, then the output will be at 0W. If we toggle power (power ON and OFF, a digital value, compatible with the computer) in the PWM device so fast that on average, 50% of the time, the power is high (10W), and the rest 50% of the time, the power is low (0W) it will average out at 5W, so the output will be 5W. Now, what if we toggle the PWM so fast that on average, 70% of the time, the power is high, and 30% of the time, the power is low?
It will average out at 7W, so the output will be 7W.
Notice how I’m getting an analog value (10W, 0W, 5W, 7W, and anything in between) out of a digital device (PWM device). Now, we can replace the PWM device with something like an Arduino, and accomplish the same thing.
I won’t be going over too much how PWM works, but I hope you understand the basics. Now let’s tie this back into MOSFETs.
Recall how power must be toggled in the PWM device “super super” fast. When working with Arduino, this will be around 600 Hz, or 600 times a second. With dedicated PWM devices, this can get up into the Kilohertz, or even Megahertz. Can you move your finger on the trigger that fast? If you could, then theoretically, you would be able to achieve PWM with your hands. Unfortunately, the switch can’t. Even with a relay, PWM can’t be practically achieved. Relays take about 20 milliseconds to change state, so only about 50 Hz. Not even close to fast enough. So we need to switch from electromechanical to electrochemical.
Here’s where the MOSFET comes into play. Remember how the MOSFET is a transistor, and transistors are in computers. Consumer computers can clock as fast as a a few Gigahertz, or a few billion times per second. Yep, that’s how fast transistors are. So MOSFETs are more than suitable, because of their speed, for variable motor control.
Tl;dr MOSFETs are so fast you can do analog outputs with them.

How it all Works - Putting all the Concepts Together

Almost time for wiring! I truly believe the concepts behind how this build works is much more important than how to assemble it. A robot can assemble this, but can’t understand the concepts. You can do both.
Let’s combine all the concepts of the transistor, MOSFET, and MOSFET pinout together to create a basic operational diagram of the circuit.
First, the MOSFET needs some sort of electrical signal to turn on. This signal will come from a switch, any switch can be used, but I use the stock switch. Super little current will flow through the switch, so you won’t need a huge 21A switch. That’s what’s so great about a MOSFET setup, the stock switch can be reused, so zero shell modification is necessary.
Signal Diagram
Now, this electrical signal needs to go into the MOSFET, to the Gate pin. You can see in the diagram above that when the switch is pressed, the gate is fed electricity, so electricity can flow through the other two pins of the MOSFET, the drain and source.
Source-Drain Diagram
Now, let's look at the complete diagram. The Signal Diagram has just been expanded upon. Now, when the switch is pressed and the MOSFET allows electricity to flow through the drain and source, we see that the entire circuit is complete! Positive of the battery goes into the load, and the load is connected to ground/negative. A full circuit!
It’s about to get a bit technical here. I’ll go over the functionality of a the resistor and diode, it’s pretty complex stuff. You know the drill to skip: “Parts and Tools Required” This will be the last technical section.

Technical Discussion Starts Here

I will discuss two components here, why they’re needed: the resistor, and the diode. The diode is much more complicated in its functionality.
The Resistor
A Sneak Preview of Some Schematics:Schematics of Pull-Down Resistor
This resistor is known as a “pull-down” resistor, since it connects between the gate of the MOSFET and ground. When working with electronics, you will see “pull-up” and pull-down resistors a lot. pull-up/down resistors are used to ensure given no other input, a circuit assumes a default value. In the case of this build, since a pull-down resistor is being used, the default value is pulled to low. This makes sense, since when the MOSFET is off, the Vgs (input voltage, or potential difference between the gate and source), is zero.
But why would we need this pull-down resistor if no current is flowing to the gate when the switch isn't pressed? Well that’s the thing. It’s not that simple. The voltage as the gate is said to be “floating”. This means the voltage could be many different values, and that will of course mess up how the MOSFET will behave. A small input voltage, say, from the electrostatics of your finger, could be all that’s needed to turn the MOSFET on. This isn’t good, so we use the pull-down resistor to ensure that when the MOSFET is off, it’s off for good.
The Diode
A Sneak Preview of Some Schematics: Schematics of Flyback Diode
This diode is known as a “flyback diode”
Motors are extremely interesting works of techonology. Simply put, it’s a converter between mechanical energy and electrical energy, and it can work in both directions: as a generator, and as a motor. When the motors act as a generator, a voltage in the reverse direction is formed. Voltage is the force driving the current, so we also call it electromotive force, or EMF. Because the voltage is in the reverse direction, we call it counter-EMF or back EMF (BEMF).
Okay, let’s go over that again.
  • Voltage = electromotive force = EMF
  • A motor may also act as a generator.
  • When a motor acts as a generator, it will generate a voltage in the reverse direction of current flow.
  • This voltage in the reverse direction has a special name: counter EMF or back EMF (BEMF)
So when does the motor act as a generator? Well, in real-world applications, this is used in power plants, both nuclear, coal, and natural gas. They’re all taking some sort of mechanical energy, and converting it to electrical energy.
Remember! A motor and generator are the same. The only difference is the direction of the conversion of energy.
In media, we’ve seen someone pedaling on a stationary bicycle to power a light bulb. This is a generatomotor. A generatomotor apparatus is attached to the bike in a way so when the pedal is turned, it turns the shaft of the motogenerator. It’s converting mechanical energy (the biker moving his legs to pedal the pedals) into electrical energy (to power the light bulb). If I were to power the same generatomotor apparatus using a battery, the pedals will actually turn. In this case, I’m turning the motogenerator apparatus into a motor: a converter between electrical energy (stored in the battery) into mechanical energy (to move the pedals).
So in a blaster, power from the battery is going to the motors when the rev trigger is pressed. The motor is acting like a motor, converting electrical energy to mechanical energy. When the rev trigger isn’t pressed, the power from the battery is cut off, so no more power from the battery is going into the motor. But, the we observe the motor is still spinning. It may not be spinning as fast as when the rev trigger was being pressed, but the motors are still spinning. And what happens to a motor when it’s spinning, but not powered? It’s a generator. The motor is converting the mechanical energy (flywheels spinning) into electrical energy. We can harness this energy to charge our batteries (this is how some vehicles like the Toyota Prius work), but a more complex circuit will be necessary, and it won’t be too effective. Also recall that the energy being generated is BEMF.
The concept of a motogenerator is very important to describe the functionality of the flyback diode.
This is a Diode
Notice how the anode, or positive part, of the diode is connected to Vcc. This is so current doesn’t flow through the diode when the motor is on. But, when the motor is powered off, a BEMF is created. Now what was previously the negative of the motor becomes the positive of the power source, since it’s acting as a generator and the EMF created is in the opposite direction, hence BEMF. Now, the negative of the motogenerator is connected to the cathode, or negative part, of the diode, and the positive is connected to the anode. Current can now flow through the diode, but only when the motogenerator is generating BEMF. That’s why the orientation of the diode matters.
Now this is where many people get confused, myself previously included. They think that this BEMF may produce high spikes in voltage, which may damage the MOSFET. So, a flyback diode is required to take care of those high spikes in voltage. This is not entirely correct.
To debunk this theory, we need to remember that the BEMF ONLY from the motor turning into a generator generating voltage from the flywheel’s inertia will never exceed the battery voltage. The voltage generated only by the freewheeling of a motor will not exceed that of the supply.
But, the BEMF consists of two components: freewheeling voltage, and flyback voltage. The flyback voltage is what can damage the MOSFET, since they can be extremely high and unpredictable.
The source of this flyback voltage results from the functionality of the motor. Motors use coils. If you’ve ever opened one up, accidentally or purposely, you'll see coils. Some motors have permanent magnets, and others have electromagnets, which means more coils. When current passes through coils, it creates a magnetic field. This is called induction, as described in Faraday’s law. Okay, induction, no big deal. It’s just how a motor operates. When the circuit is open, no more magnetic field is being induced, since the flow of current has stopped. But a magnetic field already exists from the previous flow of current, and according to the first law of Thermodynamics, energy cannot be created or destroyed. This energy in the field can’t be destroyed, so it needs to go somewhere, so it goes back into the coil. This collapsing magnetic field feeds back into the coil, or inductor, and it become the source in the circuit. This “inductive spike” can generate high voltages, and this high voltage is what we protect our MOSFET from using a flyback diode.
Yum physics!
Tl;dr Resistor to ensure that when the MOSFET should be off, it is off. Diode to protect MOSFET from high voltages from the motor

Parts and Tools Required

This is already page 16 on the Google Docs, and I just rambled about MOSFETs that entire time. Let’s get started with some legit write-up. Here are the parts required. Don't skip out on any part just because you don’t know what it does, because you’ll blow stuff up.
  • 1x MOSFET. I recommend a IRLB3034PBF as an all-purpose MOSFET which will work for any motor setup. You could also get away with a IRFZ44N as with a lower-draw setup. (IRFZ44N also available on Amazon through Prime, but may come in higher quantities) - $3 for an IRLB3034PBF
  • 10kΩ (10,000Ω) resistor. Can be higher, like a 15kΩ, or 47kΩ. Digi-Key Link (Also available on Amazon through Prime, but may come in a kit of many different values) - $0.10 for one ($0.40 for ten, super bulk discounts)
  • 1N540x Rectifier Diode (0 < x <= 8; x = 8 is “strongest” and costs the same prices as 0 < x <= 7) Digi-Key Link (Also available on Amazon through Prime, but may come in a kit of many different values) ($0.25 for one, also offers bulk discounts)
  • Wire 16 AWG - 18 AWG for motors, literally any wire (stock NERF wire will work) for MOSFET signal. (you should already have this, if not $0.50)
  • Heat shrink tubing. MOSFET pins are super close together, you don’t want to short anything out. (you should already have this, if not $0.50)
  • Stock NERF microswitch (come in your blaster, you can recycle it - FREE)
Total cost: $4.35


  • Wiring tools: Soldering Iron + solder, all that good stuff
  • I Highly recommend a multimeter for testing and debugging as well as a solder sucker for any mistakes on the tiny pins of the MOSFET. A cheap multimeter can be found for around $20, and a cheap soldersucker can cost around $1 from China. These are not required.
I recommend buying all electronics from Digi-Key. They are a trustworthy electronics distributor, I’ve been shopping with them for years, and you won’t run into any knock-offs exploding in your face. Also offer great selection and prices.
Buy from China only if you know what you’re doing. You’ll save some money when buying from China, but of course it will take longer. I’ve bought thousands of electronics from China, just make sure to read datasheets and product descriptions.
Also note how many of the electronics come in kits with many different values, and a decent quantity of each value. I would recommend purchasing these kits if you plan on continuing to get more in depth into electronics, as these are basic parts which will be used throughout electronics.


Okay, here comes the fun part! A basic understanding of how the circuit works is greatly beneficial when it comes to wiring. Please look it over so you don’t explode any MOSFETs.
Here are some wiring diagrams to wire everything together properly, once you’ve gathered all the required tools and parts.
  • Remember to wire your diode in correctly! You’ll know it’s facing the wrong way or wired incorrectly if the motors aren’t spinning when the rev trigger is pressed, and/or if the diode gets warm.
  • MOSFET shouldn’t get hot when testing. If it does, double check your wiring.
  • If the MOSFET legs are too close together to solder, feel free to bend the legs. You may also bend the legs back when you’re done. They’re easier to bend up/down than left/right. When I was first starting out, I bent the legs like this:
  • Tin the legs of the MOSFET before soldering. It makes life so much easier.
  • Feel free to cut the pins of the MOSFET as well. Just make sure there’s still enough to solder onto them.
  • Since the resistor’s legs are so long, I like to wire it on my MOSFET like this: (Step 1) (Step 2) (STEP 3) . Notice how the legs of the resistors wrap around the MOSFET’s pins.
  • When using fatter wire, it may get tricky to solder them onto the pins. I recommending physically connecting the wires in relation to the pins. For example, the right pin would have the wire soldered to the right edge of the pin, and the left pin would have the wire soldered onto the left edge o the pin. You don't need to solder all of the wires directly on top of each pin.
  • Heat shrink all connections!
  • Test with a few AAs first. Sometimes, two or three might not be enough. You might need a few more. Don't damage your LiPo.
Close up your blaster and

You’re all done!

Final Notes

Whoo! Finally done. It sure took me a long time to make this, and I hope it takes you a long time to read and understand the concepts here. If I have made any mistakes in terminology or concepts, or you need something clarified, please do notify me! as I am still learning.

Useful Links

Video Tutorial: One day
Imgur Album with all the images:
A Google Doc of this:
Read this on my website:
MOSFET Boards:
To learn more cool stuff, check these out. No Wikipedia links since my school says they’re evil and because they can oftentimes be too technical for beginners, and it’s usually the first search result:
What is a MOSFET?
How does a MOSFET work? (Title says Transistor, but video describes a MOSFET)
Controlling High-Current Loads
P-Channel vs N-Channel MOSFET
Arduino vs. Microcontroller vs. Microprocsessor
Pull-Up and Pull-Down Resistors
Flyback Diode
More on BEMF
BEMF vs Flyback Voltage
If there are any topics you want covered in-depth by a tutorial like this, leave a comment on it! I do mainly electronics and coding, to too much hardware stuff. Here are some future tutorials I have in mind:
  • Select-fire (toggling fire modes with a joystick lol)
  • Motor braking
  • Tachometer (this will be pretty complicated, using concepts discussed in the flyback diode portion. Will require math.)
They will probably be write-ups such as this one, since my video production quality sucks :P
It took a good amount of time to make this twenty-two-page long document on Google Docs, so any feedback - on content, writing style, diagrams, etc. - would be greatly appreciated! Thanks so much for reading this much!
EDIT: Formatting, links, Google Doc link, link to website
submitted by MingBatt to Nerf [link] [comments]

[Table] I am a Tesla Model S owner, AMA

Verified? (This bot cannot verify AMAs just yet)
Date: 2013-02-16
Link to submission (Has self-text)
Link to my post
Questions Answers
If there was one thing you could change about the car what would it be? (Im a Telsa Engineer so I want to some feedback) My wife says a way to close the charge port from inside. She always forgets to. She'd like to have the profile remember her radio station too. And a place to hang dry cleaning. I'd like the car to know which of our two keys goes with which profile. I hit my head on the roof because she likes the seat so high. I mentioned some other stuff below, but it's all pretty minor. pm me if you want more.
*Tesla Engineer.
And a place to hang dry cleaning. What? We get some office clothes dry cleaned and we have to lay them down in the back of the Tesla because there are no handles or hooks over the doors like every other car we've ever owned.
Was the decision to purchase such a high end vehicle more of an impulse buy or did you research for a while and look at other options? Are you satisfied with your purchase? Anyways, I hope you are enjoying it! TL;DR Satisfied and love the car, the total cost was still personally quite high.
It was not an impulse. I have a friend who got the Tesla Roadster, and he let me drive it, first on the road, and then at an auto-cross track. (It drove like a sports car). But we didn't want a sports car, we preferred the sedan, so when the Model S was announced, we thought about it a lot and decided to get it, part spoiling, and part to support the idea of nice electric cars. We put some money down a couple years ago, and the more when we decided to get the signature series. We got the signature series in part because it brought us to the front of the line, and from the belief that having a limited edition version of a car can help preserve its resale value. I'm really satisfied with the car, I really enjoy it. The only regret is that it really was a lot of money, beyond what we planned. The car was announced as $57,499 with a $7500 federal tax credit for getting an electric car, but once you added the options, primarily longer battery range, it rose to $100k. We had big reevaluate and decided to go ahead anyway.
At what kind of average, stable income do you feel getting a car with this high of a price is worth the return on gas savings? Secondly, do you believe it is worth mortgaging the car to buy it? I got the super high end version for $100k, and I wasn't very comfortable with it. I paid cash because I hate consumer debt. It put a big dent in my retirement savings but I really want the world to have electric cars that are nice instead of like souped up golf carts. Honestly, I'm not the best expert to say what stable income you should have. I will say that you save a lot on gas and actually on maintenance, so I think it becomes comparable to other slightly "cheaper" luxury vehicles like a Mercedes, BMW, or Lexus.
In what way does an electric have cheaper maintenance...? I know there's less moving parts, but that battery's gonna fail sometime. You don't need a bunch of things like oil changes, and the fewer moving parts is super important. The yearly subscription is supposed to be around $600 (they haven't sold it to me yet). The battery has an 8 year warranty, so I don't need to worry in that time. The expected battery replacement cost is $12,000. So if after the warranty expires, it immediately dies, then I have spent $1500 per year, and divided by $4/gallon is 375 gallons, and if we multiply that by 30 mpg, we get 11,250 miles per year equivalent. So anything I drive past those 11,250 miles should be "free". (Unless I screwed up the math). Also, I didn't take into account electricity cost.
Other thought, does Telsa warranty the battery or the manufacture of the battery? I ask because if Telsa as a company fails in five years what recourse if any do you have? I'm sure if Tesla goes away some third party or custom guy would be able to help me out, and it would be horrible. But then I might be able to sell the car to a collector knowing there will never be any more and mine is limited edition.
What kind of miles are you primarily putting on it? City vs highway? It's a mix. I do some things nearby, and somethings about 30 miles away. I actually stopped working about the time I got it and haven't decided to get another job yet, so it just varies.
Is the car getting you laid? No. I am married and faithful, so change in car status does not change the quality or frequency of my sex life.
No. I am married. That's all you had to say. I wanted to believe my answer was a little funny.
What is the furthest you've driven it? I drove from town to a nearby ski resort, parked for the day, and drove back. The ski resort is about 75 miles away. It appeared to use a lot of my charge on the way up, but coming down the mountain I drove 20-30 miles using basically no energy.
TL;DR 150 mile trip with cold and a mountain.
You didn't have any problems with the conditions? I have performance tires and when I got to the parking lot I had very little friction. I got some spikes-spiders for future snowboarding trips.
I had to get a push to get started a couple of times, and when I got to the edge of the parking lot I fish-tailed severely. You can imagine the nervousness in such an expensive car.
How does the car ride? Does it handle like a sports car? It's super smooth with strong acceleration. The giant heavy battery at the bottom makes it very stable, but it doesn't have the agility of a sports car.
I haven't had much in the way of safe opportunities to really push the limits, but I plan to go to the track and have a trainer help me learn more.
How does it compare to other cars you have driven? Also, how is the steering feel? It's the nicest car I've ever driven. The steering feels normal. It's different than the Prius (larger wheel) but I don't really know how to describe it.
What happens if you're stuck and without a charge? Also, how long does it take to charge your car? You call Tesla and they tow it somewhere. It's shitty like running out of gas, except worse because it is an automatic tow. This has never happened to me.
Whenever I get home for the day, I plug it in and leave it and it is always charged by morning. I use a standard 220 volt plug like you might have in your garage in the US. The Tesla guy told me that at 30 amps I should get about 30 miles of range per hour. I actually have about 40 amps.
There are additional options you can buy to charge faster, like getting a high performance charger for your garage, and I think there is a double charger you can get for the car. You can get to a point where you can get a full charge in an hour, like using their super charger network.
Has the backseat seen any action yet? Yes. I regularly have people point, smile, give me the thumbs up, or stop me in the parking lot to ask me about the car. "It has speakers so loud, it blows women's clothes off."
Do most people recognize it as a Tesla or are they mostly just pointing out the neat design? I think the ones who notice do so because they recognize it. But unless I talk to them I don't really know.
Was the experience what you had expected? Yes. I drive it around like you would any car, except I never go to the gas station. I was shocked at the incredible acceleration because my previous car was a Prius. The luxury is very nice as well.
One thing I didn't expect is that they regularly patch the software with updates over the 3G connection. They've fixed minor bugs and added features this way. Minor bugs were things like a small screen corruption. Features were things like profiles so my wife and I can each get our seat settings automatically remembered individually.
There have been a couple minor things that I would expect from a luxury car that were missing, like there's no place to hang up the dry cleaning. I also felt that they should have an automatic volume adjustment based on speed since there is still some road noise.
Did you pick up the car yourself or did you get it delivered to your house? How long have you owned it and how many miles have you put in it so far? When it comes to say a tire rotation would you just go to a regular mechanic or have to go to a Tesla dealership? They delivered it to me last Sept. In fact, there was a surprise $1k delivery fee on the final bill (before delivery).
I haven't needed that yet, but I'll probably go to Tesla. I'm planning to buy their maintenance plan anyway.
I also had a recent problem with my 3G, and they came and picked it up, took it back, did the repairs, and brought it back to me. No charge under warranty.
Was it a no haggle price or could you negotiate off the sticker? No haggle. They have customers on a waiting list, they have no need to negotiate. And really, I think they are pushing hard to make the money to fund the company and the next model they want to build.
They've taken a couple sources of investors to keep the company going.
Were you ever a "car person" before owning it? Do you ever miss owning a gas-powered car? I was not a car person. My Roadster owning friend had previously had a Porshe as well, and let me drive that for autocross, and that was more than enough for me.
I also really like Project Gotham Racing on the XBox.
We still have a Prius as a second car. I never drive it. But in the unlikely event we were planning a road trip and couldn't easily come up with a charging plan we would just take it.
I'm a Roadster owner myself. How does the Model S compare? Where the Roadster is sporty and optimized for speed, the Model S is luxurious and solid. The Roadster is a lot louder, obviously not from the motor, but from wind and tire noise. And the Model S is a lot easier to get in and out of, and has tons of cargo space.
I love electric vehicles. I believe them to be the future and a necessary step in human evolution. So I'm with you on it. But I have a couple of questions and comments. Ive read that the carbon cost of producing a hybrid or electric vehicle is great than a standard vehicle. Turns out that getting all that lithium is a very messy ordeal. I was wondering if you've heard the same and what your thoughts on the subject is? Are you worried about having to replace the battery in a couple of years? Thats the one thing that keeps from me investing in an electric vehicle. I don't know what my financial situation will be in 8-10 years and buying a new battery sounds like a pain. How much does it cost to completely charge a drained battery? I didn't worry about the carbon cost because I believe we need to get to having electric cars, but I also believe that battery technology is heavily researched right now and we will have breakthroughs, possibly before my battery dies. So lithium may be a relatively crappy way to build electric cars now, but once we have good charging networks, the demand for better batteries that last longer, weigh less, are easier to produce, and charge more quickly will grow.
Would you say your interest in electric vehicles is purely technology based or environmentally based? For me, personally, its 85% tech and 15% environment. My interested in electric cars is probably similar to yours: 85% tech, and 15% environmental/political. By political I mean reduction of use of oil, similar to environmental.
I don't worry about the battery replacement that much. While the money matters to me, it's too big of an unknown too far away in my opinion. It could be cheaper by then. I could have sold the car by then. They could have had to replace the battery in the 7th year by then so I feel like I've got a lot of life left in it.
We are of the same mind. I too feel we need to urgently ween ourselves from the oil teet. asap too. I had to look up the cost per charge on Tesla's site. Looks like about $10 depending on your state. How often do you change it? I typically plug it in when I get home and don't expect to go out again, even if I've driven a few miles. It's not much trouble at all, and of course I never go to the gas station.
How long do you think it will be before we all have induction chargers built into the walls/floors of our garages and we won't even have the trouble of plugging it in? Wild speculation here, but I think a long time because I don't think that will be nearly as energy efficient as a metal connection. I think more likely would something that would notice the car and just make the connection for you.
What do you do for a living? I am in the computer industry, originally a programmer and now a manager of business groups that produce software.
How warm can the interior get? How long does it take to get the interior to it's warmest setting? Thanks. BTW i really want to buy this car, but i live in the Midwest and am starting to think it's not a good cold weather car. Even going up on a snowboarding day to freezing temperatures it doesn't have trouble heating up. In fact, since it is just an electric heater it starts warming up sooner, and it has heated seats as well.
I think the heating issue is more about taking a range penalty rather than the ability to heat.
I used to live in the interior of Alaska, so I sympathize with your temperature questions, -40 is a lot different than 28. Since I don't have personal experience with the car at those lower temperatures I would talk to Tesla about it.
I want to drive one of those so bad! how much does it cost to charge to do a full charge with the standard charging system? and how is the touch screen console? Answered the cost to charge below, but approximately $10.
The touch screen console is really good. And in a recent update they added some voice commands, so I can hold a button and say, "navigate to XYZ," and it will give me a list of possibilities.
With the touch screen, you can have your music (radio, internet radio, or device through USB or bluetooth), navigation, energy consumption, rear facing camera, or web browser (I might have missed one). You can either have two of these up at once or make one full screen. Full screen navigation is quite nice. But there's also a good local navigation next to the speedometer that also shows things like going down a hill so you can see your next turn really clearly.
I don't really use the web browser because I don't want to die. But I did have a passenger use it once to look for a couple of things (again, I wasn't paying attention to the screen). I heard a rumor that they were going to disable it at some point for safety reasons. I hope if they do something like that they do it only if the car is moving and the passenger seat is empty.
I thought I would miss tactile feedback, but there are good hardware controls on the steering wheel for the most common things, so it hasn't been an issue.
Does your insurance company have any problem covering a car with such a high purchase price? No problem, they are happy to take bigger premiums to cover the risk.
Obviously you don't drive it the same way a test drivejournalist would do, but what are your thoughts on the the recent New York Times debacle? I would be shocked if Tesla would give a journalist a road trip plan with a significant chance of failure. Now a CNN guy tried the same trip with no problems, and I just saw on the front page of reddit that 6 owners are trying the same trip as well. I think empirical data is a good way to decide it rather than speculation.
You don't need a bunch of things like oil changes, and the fewer moving parts is super important. The yearly subscription is supposed to be around $600 (they haven't sold it to me yet). The battery has an 8 year warranty, so I don't need to worry in that time. The expected battery replacement cost is $12,000. So if after the warranty expires, it immediately dies, then I have spent $1500 per year, and divided by $4/gallon is 375 gallons, and if we multiply that by 30 mpg, we get 11,250 miles per year equivalent. So anything I drive past those 11,250 miles should be "free". (Unless I screwed up the math). Also, I didn't take into account electricity cost. If you take into account electricity costs, do you think it's still worth it considering that you had to pay 100k for it? If you mean versus those other luxury cars, I think it is too close to call, especially since I haven't done good cost analysis on buying and keeping up with them. I wouldn't have bought such an expensive car if it wasn't electric, so that's why I don't have the hard math on the difference.
If I really wanted to look at cost efficiency in an electric, I would analyze the Nissan Leaf vs a bare-bones Tesla Model S. The Leaf is still pricey (I think $40k), and it has much more limited range (75 miles), but if you wanted a commuter car and live within 25 miles of work, I think it would be great.
How many miles can it go if you drive it at its top speed? I'd say statistically it varies from about 5 to 30, depending on when the cop catches you and arrests you.
What is the top speed? I don't know but I bet they have a limiter in the 110-120 mph range.
What don't you like about it? Parking proximity detectors.
Cruise control proximity regulator.
Automatic volume control based on speed.
Originally didn't have driver profiles for seat adjustments. Now does, but doesn't include temperature settings, radio stations.
No "oh shit" handles for hanging stuff up.
Windshield wipers are good but not great.
[fixed] wiper algorithm used to suck (like should immediately start if I crank it up a notch, even from intermittent 1 to 2)
Things that can be fixed in software keep showing up, and it's really nice.
Edit: formatting
Amazing how they are updating the car over the 3g network. But it sounds like a nice target for a hacker too. Hopefully they connect over SSL, and if it were me I would make the low level updater only update with a binary that was digitally signed by Tesla.
Are the electronic systems in the car (radio, navigation) powered by the same battery that powers the engine or is there a separate battery for those? There's a separate 12V battery for those, but it gets charged by the rest of the system. They had a bug for a while where if you left it for a long time, under some situations it would drain that 12V battery. I went on a trip for a couple weeks and when I came back it was dead. The service people came to my place and fixed it.
As a muscle car enthusiast (75 trans am street/strp and 72 monte carlo strip only) my question pertains to use and comparisons to modern gas vehicles. It is a modern car, and completely feasible for daily use.
How feasible is this thing for a typical daily driver? What about maintenance, is there a steep learning curve for those of you in this club that are mechanically inclined? Price of repair parts? I think it is worse for the mechanically inclined because it is a battery, an electric motor, and a computer. There's probably less than usual for you to self repair. Fortunately, I believe the need should be lower than usual for the same reasons.
How would you rate it as a pussy mobile? Do the environmental chicks jump all over you now or what? Car buffs. The thing is beautiful and awesome and won like three car of the year awards.
Environmental types. While I don't check for hairy legs or Birkenstocks, having an all electric does get some pacific northwest appreciation.
Status aware. It's a high end and exotic luxury car. I didn't get it for status, but I don't mind. I've been asked about it by multiple lawyers.
The curious.
Is it unsafe to leave it in charging for a long time? How long do you usually have to charge it? How far can you go on a charge? They recommend you leave it charging, especially if you will be gone for a long time like on a trip. They have a computer on board to make decisions about whether to take the charge or not, and scientists wearing white smocks to determine the best charging algorithms. I usually charge it every night.
You have two options when charging, a normal charge that takes the battery to 90% only, or a range charge that tops it off. The normal charge is preferred because it is better for the battery life to avoid either a full charge or a complete empty.
On a normal charge, I am rated for I think 270 miles. I think in practice the way I drive that is more like 220-240 miles, including heating, an occasional tendency to "enjoy" the acceleration, etc.
How fast does driving 30 minutes on the highway at 70 mph drain the battery compared with driving 55 mph on the highway for the same period of time? I don't have a precise answer for you, but I know it has an impact, just like the impact driving 70 mph has draining your gas tank vs 55 mph for the same time. If you forced me to guess, I would say 5-15% worse range.
On the dash there is an energy consumption meter that tells you how much energy / mile you are using. In goes up and down all the time as you accelerate, slow down, climb hills, etc. It shows you how you are doing compared to a "rated range". I rarely achieve the rated range, and then it is if I can go a steady 55-60 mph on a flat stretch.
In practice, I never really worry about it and drive however I want with the temperature set to what makes me comfortable. With 270 miles of range I'm always home well within the limit driving like I normally would in traffic, even when I go to the ski resort.
How long did you have to wait on the waiting list? 2 years. But most of the wait was because the car wasn't out yet. My car was after about a dozen founders, and about 270 other signature owners.
How long does a charge take? 1h 15 min / 40 miles. They have a Charging Calculator Page
Does it have a 110v charging option? Yes. It comes with adapters for regular plugs, dryer plugs, and commercial charging stations. But regular plugs have such low amperage I think it takes ~infinity hours to charge on that.
Though you've touched on the way you drive your car, how you drove it on a trip, and when you charge it, how do you feel about the Telsa vs. Times? I feel like Times is quite off in the article but I don't have a Tesla. And as always, thanks for doing the AMA. I think there is something fishy about the Times situation, but I like proof a lot more than a quick conclusion. We're getting a lot of new examples of people doing the same route no problem, which makes Times look worse, but I would ask the next question that is was there something wrong with his specific casituation?
How much room does the car have? I'm 6'7" and just wondering if this is tall people friendly. My brother-in-law is 6'7" and in the passenger seat he said it was fine. He suspected without the sunroof it would be close. He commented in particular he was pleased that his knees didn't have to push against the dash. He didn't sit in the driver's seat when offered.
Do they cover if the battery dies? If not, how much to replace? For my battery, they have an 8 year, unlimited mile warranty.
I believe the estimated replacement cost is $12,000.
Wtf $12000 just to replace the battery? Sounds a little expensive. It's like 1000 laptop batteries. (not sure on actual number)
Big Macs or Whoppers? Paleo, so neither. But back in the day I didn't care, but marketing controlled my brain because I think I usually defaulted to Big Mac. When I ate fries I liked McD, unless I was in CA in which case In-n-out all the way, baby.
How is the air conditioning on it? does it blow pretty cold? Yes. I haven't needed it much so far but it does blow chilly air.
How far do you go between charges? Do you commute in it? How far? Do you charge at work? I usually go local places, so between 50 and 150 miles is normal for me. I haven't bothered charging away from home.
Why doesn't the car have 3g/4g instead of just 3g for that price? any reason? I don't know, but I would assume either at some point they had locked down hardware and a project delay would have been required to change, or that 3G was good enough for showing maps and listening to internet radio so an upgrade would have raised the cost unnecessarily, or both.
Whats the fastest you've driven it and what was it like? I think I was passing one time and went 90-100 mph. It's fast, but the car was still super smooth so it didn't quite feel like it.
Many years ago I drove another car about 130 mph on a straight away with no other cars around and it was scary.
How did you afford it? I worked 20 years, got somewhat lucky with company stock, saved more than I spent, and went a bit out of my comfort zone for this purchase. My wife works too, and that is a huge impact.
I would love to be able to purchase one of these cars eventually. Would you buy it again if you could go back and redo the purchase process? I would buy it again.
Also, is the charger for one of these cars portable? It comes with a cable you can plug in with several adapters.
To both? Hard to pick one, but favorite 3 is probably never going to gas station, fabulous acceleration, and general luxury.
With the heater on full blast how much does it eat into the range? I don't actually know, sorry.
How much does it cost after you count all the gas you save? Tl;dr I'm guessing $1500/year in gas and $500/year in maintenance.
Assume 15k miles/year. Gas for that would be 15k / 30 mpg * 4 dollars/gallon = $2000 / year Electric is 15k / 270 range/charge * $10 per charge = $555 / year Savings is $1444 / year. Paid no sales tax because it is electric. ~$9000 Federal tax credit because it is electric. $7500 Don't know relative first year maintenance. I'll wing it and take $500. First year "savings": $18,444. (You could discount the sales to a percentage of your cheaper car, but I didn't).
Would you have no hesitation to charge that car to 100% for a 200 mile trip or would you prefer to charge to 90% and attempt to limit the reduction to the long life of the battery ? I would be confident in a 200 mile trip at 90%, but when I took my first drive to the ski resort I did a range charge to be sure I would make it.
I am not reluctant to charge to 100% for the occasional specific need. I hope that answered your question.
What is the plug-in situation like? Is it a special outlet? If not, I could see it being difficult going long distances and finding proper outlets to re-charge your car. It comes with a cable that has adapter plugs for a regular dryer outlet (the normal way), a totally normal outlet (incredibly slow), and the standard for commercial plug-ins.
Sorry if you've already answered it but do you only have it to get higher on the list for the roadster? Or do I have that backwards. I have it because it was the car I wanted. I think roadster owners got priority for the Model S.
Do you live in silicon valley? No.
Okay. Do you race people ever? Maybe on a spirited drive? Nice car btw. But I hear that if you try to roll race a BMW F10 M5 stock, you'd lose pretty bad. :) Not really, I haven't been on the road when it would be vaguely feasible. Watch this video of the Model S vs the BMW M5. It's closer than you might think.
I'd like the car to know which of our two keys goes with which profile. I hit my head on the roof because she likes the seat so high. I mentioned some other stuff below, but it's all pretty minor. pm me if you want more. Actually I think I might go with a cruise control speed limiter based on car proximity. Cruise control loses most of its value in variable speed traffic. That, and some of these other features (and parking proximity warning) were things I assumed would come with such a high end car, and while their absence doesn't make me sad, it was a slight surprise.
I wonder what the spread of owners is across the country. I also live in Washington (Redmond) and at my company there are 4 S's in the parking lot (about 500 employees). I see a ton around here, but when I talk to others around the country they seem pretty rare. It's popular in the pacific northwest. I don't know the actual numbers. Maybe ask them at Bellevue Square.
I think he's a not-very-dedicated novelty account. Half his comments are trolling, the other somewhat acceptable. I didn't intend my answers to be trolling. If I wasn't very specific, it's probably because I wasn't sure of the answer, or if the question was silly in the first place.
How do you feel knowing that your car runs on coal? Most of the local energy is hydro electric.
I'm sorry, but I'm going to plug myself in here because I'm at a loss: I've been trying to apply to Tesla Motors for an engineering position (graduating May of this year), but there are NEVER any job openings! Any advice?! Not really. But as I understand it, a roadster owner hacked the log files and created a utility that let you monitor a bunch of things about the car in an app or website or something and then later got hired by Tesla. He probably used up that route in the process.
Be amazing. Demonstrate passion for the space.
Last updated: 2013-02-26 18:03 UTC
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